Table of Contents for Disappearing Cryptography 3

About the Author xiii
Preface xv
Book Notes xvii
0.1 Notes On the Third Edition 2
0.2 Notes On the Second Edition 3
1 Framing Information 5
1.0.1 Reasons for Secrecy 7
1.0.2 How It Is Done 9
1.0.3 How Steganography Is Used 11
1.0.4 Attacks on Steganography 12
1.1 Adding Context 16
2 Encryption 19
2.1 Pure White 19
2.2 Encryption and White Noise 20
2.2.1 DES and Modern Ciphers 24
2.2.2 Public-Key Encryption 28
2.2.3 How Random Is the Noise? 29
2.3 Measuring and Encrypting Information 31
2.3.1 RSA Encryption 33
2.4 Summary 35
3 Error Correction 37
3.1 Close but No Cigar 37
3.2 Correcting Errors 37
3.2.1 Error Correction and White Noise 44
3.2.2 Error Correction and Secret Sharing 45
3.3 Constructing Error-Correcting Codes 46
3.3.1 Periodic Codes 49
3.4 Summary 51
4 Secret Sharing 55
4.1 Two out of Three Musketeers 55
4.2 Splitting Up Secrets 56
4.2.1 Requiring All Parts 57
4.2.2 Letting Parts Slide 59
4.2.3 A More Efficient Method 62
4.2.4 Providing Deniability 62
4.3 Building Secret-Sharing Schemes 63
4.3.1 Making Some More Equal 65
4.4 Public-Key Secret Sharing 66
4.5 Steganographic File Systems and Secret Sharing 67
4.6 Summary 71
5 Compression 73
5.1 Television Listing 73
5.2 Patterns and Compression 74
5.2.1 Huffman Coding 77
5.3 Building Compression Algorithms 79
5.3.1 Huffman Compression 80
5.3.2 Dictionary Compression 82
5.3.3 JPEG Compression 83
5.3.4 GZSteg 84
5.4 Summary 85
6 Basic Mimicry 87
6.1 Reading between the Lines 87
6.2 Running in Reverse 88
6.2.1 Choosing the Next Letter 92
6.3 Implementing the Mimicry 94
6.3.1 Goosing with Extra Data 97
6.3.2 Regular Mimicry and Images 99
6.4 Summary 100
7 Grammars and Mimicry 103
7.1 Evolution of Everyday Things 103
7.2 Using Grammar for Mimicry 105
7.2.1 Context-Free Grammars 105
7.2.2 Parsing and Going Back 109
7.2.3 How Good Is It? 111
7.3 Creating Grammar-Based Mimicry 114
7.3.1 Parsing the Output 117
7.3.2 Suggestions for Building Grammars 118
7.3.3 Scrambled Grammars 119
7.3.4 Assessing the Theoretical Security of Mimicry 128
7.3.5 Efficient Mimicry-Based Codes 131
7.4 Summary 132
8 Turing and Reverse 137
8.1 Doggie's Little Get Along 137
8.2 Running Backward 138
8.2.1 Reversing Gears 142
8.3 Building a Reversible Machine 148
8.3.1 Reversible Turing Machines 148
8.3.2 Reversible Grammar Generators 150
8.3.3 The Reversible Grammar Machine 153
8.4 Summary 156
9 Life in the Noise 159
9.1 Boy-Zs in Noizy, Idaho 159
9.2 Hiding in the Noise 161
9.2.1 Problems with the Noise 162
9.2.2 Good noise? 163
9.2.3 Independence Problems 165
9.2.4 File Format Grief 167
9.2.5 Deniability 170
9.2.6 Finding Edges 172
9.3 Bit Twiddling 172
9.3.1 Working with GIFs 172
9.3.2 Smarter Color Reduction 177
9.3.3 Sound Files 180
9.4 Random Walks and Subsets 180
9.4.1 Empty Disk Space 184
9.5 Putting JPEG to Use 185
9.5.1 Hiding Information in JPEG Files 189
9.5.2 Outguess 190
9.5.3 F4 and F5 191
9.6 Summary 193
10 Anonymous Remailers 195
10.1 Dr. Anon to You 195
10.2 Anonymous Remailers 197
10.2.1 Enhancements 199
10.2.2 Using Remailers 199
10.2.3 Using Private Idaho 201
10.2.4 Web Remailers 201
10.3 Remailer Guts 203
10.3.1 Other Remailer Packages 206
10.3.2 Splitting Paths 208
10.4 Anonymous Networks 210
10.4.1 Freedom Network 210
10.4.2 PipeNet 211
10.4.3 Crowds 212
10.4.4 Freenet 212
10.4.5 OceanStore 214
10.5 Long term storage 215
10.5.1 Eternity Server 215
10.5.2 Entanglement 216
10.6 Publius 218
10.7 Onion Routing 220
10.7.1 Establishing a Circuit 221
10.7.2 More Indirection: Hidden Services 224
10.7.3 Stopping Bad Users 228
10.8 Anonymous Auction Protocols 230
10.9 The Future 231
10.10 Summary 231
11 Secret Broadcasts 235
11.1 Table Talk 235
11.2 Secret Senders 235
11.3 Creating a DC Net 239
11.3.1 Cheating DC Nets 241
11.4 Summary 242
12 Keys 245
12.1 The Key Vision 245
12.2 Extending Control 246
12.3 Signing Algorithms 248
12.4 Public-Key Algorithms 249
12.4.1 Leveraging Public-Key Cryptography 250
12.4.2 Constraining Hard Problems 250
12.4.3 Using Matrix Multiplication 253
12.4.4 Removing Parts 255
12.5 Zero Knowledge Approaches 256
12.5.1 Discrete Logs for Proofs 260
12.6 Collusion Control 262
12.7 Summary 263
13 Ordering and Reordering 265
13.1 Top 10 Reasons Why Top 10 Lists Fail 265
13.2 Introduction 266
13.3 Strength Against Scrambling 267
13.4 Invariant Forms 269
13.5 Canonical Forms 269
13.6 Packing in Multiple Messages 270
13.7 Sorting to Hide Information 271
13.8 Word Scrambling 273
13.9 Adding Extra Packets 274
13.10 Port Knocking 275
13.10.1 Enhancing Port Knocking 276
13.11 Continuous Use and Jamming 278
13.12 Summary 279
14 Spreading 281
14.1 A New Job 281
14.2 Spreading the Information 283
14.3 Going Digital 287
14.3.1 An example 288
14.3.2 Synchronization 291
14.3.3 Strengthening the System 292
14.3.4 Packing Multiple Messages 293
14.4 Comparative Blocks 294
14.4.1 Minimizing Quantization Errors 296
14.4.2 Perturbed Quantization 296
14.5 Fast Fourier Solutions 298
14.5.1 Some Brief Calculus 300
14.6 The Fast Fourier Transform 301
14.7 Hiding Information with FFTs and DCTs 305
14.7.1 Tweaking a Number of Coefficients 307
14.7.2 Removing the Original from the Detection Process 310
14.7.3 Tempering the Wake 310
14.8 Wavelets 311
14.9 Modifications 313
14.10 Summary 315
15 Synthetic Worlds 319
15.1 Slam Dunks 319
15.2 Created Worlds 320
15.3 Text Position Encoding and OCR 322
15.3.1 Positioning 323
15.3.2 MandelSteg and Secrets 325
15.4 Echo Hiding 326
15.5 Summary 327
16 Watermarks 329
16.1 A Patent for Watermarking Humans 329
16.2 Tagging Digital Documents 330
16.2.1 A Watermarking Taxonomy 332
16.3 A Basic Watermark 335
16.3.1 Choosing the Coefficients 337
16.4 An Averaging Watermark 337
16.4.1 Effects of Distortion 339
16.4.2 Birthday Marks 339
16.5 Summary 341
17 Steganalysis 343
17.1 Code Words 343
17.2 Finding Hidden Messages 343
17.3 Typical Approaches 345
17.4 Visual and Aural Attacks 346
17.4.1 Visual Attacks 346
17.4.2 Aural Attacks 349
17.5 Structural Attacks 350
17.5.1 Interpolated Images 352
17.6 Statistical Attacks 354
17.6.1 Wavelet Statistics 356
17.6.2 Re-alignment 357
17.7 Summary 357
18 Obfuscation 361
18.1 Regulation 361
18.2 Code Rearrangement 362
18.3 Compiling Intelligence 363
18.4 Real Tools 368
18.5 Summary 369
19 Synchronization 371
19.1 Stealing Baseball's Signs 371
19.2 Getting In Sync 372
19.3 Extending Other Tools 373
19.4 Summary 376
20 Translucent Databases 379
20.1 Missed Connections 379
20.2 Hiding In Databases 379
20.2.1 One-way Functions 381
20.3 Using Strong One-Way Functions 382
20.3.1 One-Way Functions and Steganography 382
20.4 Summary 383
21 Plain Sight 385
21.1 Laughtracks 385
21.2 Hiding in the Open 386
21.3 Other Formats 387
21.3.1 Microformats 389
21.3.2 Rice's Theorem 390
21.4 Summary 391
22 Coda 393
A Java Mimic Code 397
A.1 BitInput 397
A.2 CTMimicCentral 397
A.3 Globals 399
A.4 WordNode 399
A.5 BitNode 400
A.6 ProductionNode 400
A.7 VariableNode 401
A.8 MimicProdNode 402
A.9 MimicParseFrame 402
A.10 NextWordResponse 402
A.11 CTTableSetter 403
A.12 MyIntegerWrapper 403
A.13 MimicParser 403
A.14 OutSpitter 412
A.15 RandomBits 414
A.16 StringBufferBitInput 415
A.17 TableSetter 417
A.18 WordEater 425
B Baseball CFG 427
C Reversable Grammar Generator 441
D Software 453
D.1 Commercial Packages 453
D.2 Open Packages 454
D.3 Steganalysis Software 457
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